They look like common goldfish and the black ones sound like ghost koi.
Filters and UV bulbs won't prevent blanket weed. UV's clump microscopic algae together to allow the filter media to strain it out. Blanket weed is best removed by hand or by a stick with rough edges, like a thin branch so it can twirl around and pull the stands off. Don't use chemical treatments, they kill the algae then it just decomposes on the bottom and causes even more problems. Best removed as mentioned, it comes away easily.
Can the grid be removed? It looks heavy, is there a reason for it? Children, dogs maybe? I personally prefer a net, easily removed for maintainence, and keeps the herons out too.
Bubbles and froth...is it there now or was this happening in the warmer months? Usually seen in the morning after spawning has happened...it's from all of the errrr, goings on, a kind of errrr protein based meringue, so to speak!
Need to know size of pond, and depth, make & model of filter, size of pump and hose diameter.
How old is the UV bulb, it may well be lighting up, but may not be efficient, they need replacing every year or so.
Need the readings you got from the pond water test and the make of the test kit you used and was it a new kit?
I've run my pump, filter and waterfall x365 for 25 yrs and don't get problems, my fish and pond are all good. Some may suggest it's not a good idea, others, like me, prefer to run them.
I won't be able to answer all of your questions myself, but someone will help out!
...and you're in which county, just for curiosities sake? Mine is N Staffs.